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Cessna Citation Model 680 Sovereign/Sovereign+

Posted on September 13 2021

Cessna Citation Model 680 Sovereign/Sovereign+ user+1@localho… Wed, 07/13/2022 - 21:17

The Citation Sovereign and Sovereign+ are a pair of super-midsize-category business jets that represent the two commercial designations of Textron Aviation’s model 680 type. That type was announced at the 1998 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) Convention & Exhibition, with the first flight of the Sovereign taking place on Feb. 27, 2002. Subsequently, the model 680 type received FAA certification in June 2004, with the first two deliveries announced on Sept. 30, 2004. An updated version of the model 680—which increased the airframe’s range, as well as incorporated more powerful engines and winglets—was announced at the NBAA meeting and convention in October 2012, with the upgraded version being approved by the FAA in December 2013 and the first delivery taking place on Dec. 23, 2013. Although the type certificate for the model 680 is currently held by Textron Aviation Inc. of Wichita, Kansas, prior to July 29, 2015, it was held by Cessna Aircraft Co.

Model 680 Commercial Designation

FAA Certification Date

Citation Sovereign

June 2, 2004

Citation Sovereign+

Dec. 20, 2013

Cabin Capacity, Configurations, Dimensions and Outfitting

Both the Sovereign and Sovereign+ have a maximum passenger capacity of 12, with two pilots required to operate the airplane and the latter’s cabin having a height of 68 in., width of 66 in. and length of 25 ft. 3 in. Textron states that Sovereign+’s cabin features double-club seating, with tables located in between those seats, the seats themselves described as being swivel seats that are berthable and “fully tracking” and the main seating area measuring 20.3 ft. Of the interior configurations that were marketed by Textron for the Sovereign+, the standard configuration includes an aft lavatory, eight seats in the club configuration and a single seat located across from the forward-entry door. A 12-seat configuration has a pair of seats in the forward portion of the cabin and replaces the aft lavatory with another set of seats, while an 11-seat configuration has a three-seat, side-facing divan and “optional couch seating,” the latter of which is located in the forward portion of the cabin across from the 4.6 X 2.5-ft. forward-entry door. Another configuration that was promoted by Textron retained the aft lavatory that has a sink with temperature-controlled water as standard and the forward couch seating that was an option. Also located in the Sovereign+’s forward cabin is a galley that is promoted for its storage capabilities and space—it is noted as having cold storage and the ability to accommodate hot beverages—while also having a lighted “counter for food preparation.” Whether the galley is simply a refreshment center that has storage compartments for catering, containers for cold and hot beverages, an ice drawer and a trash receptible, or a larger galley, dictates whether there is a single side-facing seat across from the forward-entry door.

According to the FAA’s type certificate data sheet (TCDS), the maximum baggage weight that the Sovereign can accommodate is 1,295 lb., a weight that is divided between the aft cabin (295 lb.) and tailcone (1,000 lb.). The Sovereign+ increased that maximum weight to 1,312 lb., with the tailcone retaining the same maximum baggage weight as the Sovereign and 312 lb. accommodated in the aft cabin, and the former baggage compartment marketed as being a heated. Supplementing those storage spaces is an 8-ft.3 “coat and briefcase closet [that is located] behind the pilot.” Textron also promotes the Sovereign+’s 15 windows for their size, as well as for the fact that the operated electrically. At the maximum operating altitude noted below, a cabin altitude of 7,230 ft. is made possible by the airframe’s 9.3-psi pressurization system. Cabin pressurization, air conditioning and heating—as well as engine, horizontal stabilizer and wing anti-ice—is provided by high- and low-pressure bleed air from the airframe’s engines. The cabin management system controls the cabin environment, including the lights, temperature and window shades. Textron notes that the standard wireless cabin management provides passengers with “access to digital media, individual interactive moving maps and satellite radio,” with the moving map being a standard feature and XM satellite radio an option. In addition to those passenger-comfort and entertainment features, the Sovereign+ also had the option of air-to-ground and satellite-based connectivity systems.

Avionics

Pilots operate the Sovereign+ using Garmin’s G5000 integrated flight deck that features, as standard, autothrottles that are “fully integrated,” flight management systems, Garmin’s Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT), four touch-screen control panels and transponders that are capable of automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast (ADS-B) Out. Also part of the Sovereign+’s G5000 installation are three 14-in. landscape displays that are able to serve as either a primary or multifunction display (PFD/MFD), with Textron further promoting them for their high resolution. According to the airframe manufacturer, those displays have a “multi-pane mode” that is able to display the MFD and PFD “side by side on the same screen,” while the primary interface between the pilots and the G5000 are the four liquid-crystal display (LCD) control panels that are touch screen. Of those four LCD control panels—which also “manage specific aircraft systems,” as well as control the communication and navigation radios—the two that are located on the center pedestal are utilized to control the MFD, while the other two serve to control the PFD.

Displayed on the G5000’s PFD is Garmin’s previously noted SVT system, which is promoted by Textron as “a virtual reality of” obstacles, runways, terrain and traffic, while also improving the pilots’ situational awareness. Further described as providing that latter benefit at night in visual flight rules (VFR) conditions—as well as in instrument flight rules (IFR) conditions—it does so by “creating a dimensional depiction of ground and water features, [as well as] obstacles and traffic in proximity to the aircraft.” Using a “secondary display,” the airframe manufacturer also noted that the “MFD capabilities can be divided into two vertical pages.”  Other features of the Sovereign+’s avionics include a Class-A terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS), electronic charts, “moving map imagery” and a traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS II).

Mission and Performance

Regardless of the commercial designation, the operating limitations of the model 680 type include a maximum operating limit speed (MMO) of 0.80 Mach above 29,833 ft., as well as a maximum operating altitude of 47,000 ft. At the time that it was certified, Cessna stated that the Sovereign had a range of 2,730 nm, with the respective takeoff and landing distances being 3,694 ft. and 2,650 ft. Comparatively, the Sovereign+ increased the maximum range to 3,200 nm, which is a ferry range that assumes an airplane operated at the long-range cruise speed with NBAA IFR reserves, as well as in standard conditions and zero wind. The takeoff field length and landing distance were reduced to 3,530 ft. and 2,600 ft., respectively, with the former distance being based on the Sovereign+’s maximum takeoff weight (MTOW). The takeoff and landing performance figures for the upgraded version of the model 680 also assume standard conditions and no wind, as well as a runway that is dry, hard surface and level. A 460-kt. true airspeed (KTAS) maximum cruise speed was promoted for the Sovereign+, which is essentially the same as the 459-kt. cruise speed noted for the Sovereign when it received FAA approval. Additionally, the time that is required for the Sovereign+ to climb to flight-level (FL) 430 is 20 min., while FL450 is reached in 27 min.

Variants

Citation Sovereign and Sovereign+ Specifications

Type Designation

Model 680

Commercial Designation

Sovereign

Sovereign+

Maximum Certified Passenger Capacity

12

Maximum Range (nm)

2,847

3,200

Engine

Pratt & Whitney Canada

PW306C

PW306D

Static Thrust Limits (Takeoff/Max Continuous)

(Standard Conditions/SL) (lb.)

5,770

5,907

Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW)(lb.)

30,300

30,775

Maximum Landing Weight (lb.)

27,100

27,575

Usable Fuel (gal./lb.)

1,675.2/11,223

1,700/11,394

Wingspan (ft.)

63.13

72.32

Wing Area (ft.2)

515.9

542.52

Length (ft.)

63.54

Height (ft.)

20.25

Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306 Engines

Although both airframes are certified to be powered by a variant of Pratt & Whitney Canada’s PW306 engine, the PW306C that is certified for the Sovereign has takeoff and maximum continuous static thrust limits—based on sea-level altitude and standard conditions—of 5,770 lb., while the Sovereign+’s PW306D engines increase those limitations to 5,907 lb. The FAA TCDS that includes the PW306C and PW306D describes them as being “twin-spool turbofan propulsion engines” that include an annular combustor and single-stage fan. Those engines also incorporate an axial-centrifugal compressor that has multiple stages, as well as high- and low-pressure turbines that have two and three stages, respectively. Beyond those components, the engines are controlled by a dual-channel full authority digital engine control (FADEC) system.

Citation Sovereign and Sovereign+

Other specifications that differ between the commercial designations of the model 680 type include the fuel capacity and maximum weights, with the Sovereign limited to an MTOW of 30,300 lb., a limit that the Sovereign+ increased to 30,775 lb. Other weights that were promoted by Textron for the Sovereign+ include a basic operating weight of 18,235 lb., useful load of 12,790 lb. and maximum payload of 2,765 lb., the latter of which is reduced to 1,400 lb. when the airplane is carrying its full-fuel capacity. The total usable fuel capacity similarly varies, with the Sovereign able to carry 1,675.2 gal. (11,223 lb.) that is divided between two 837.6-gal. (5,611.5-lb.) wing tanks. The Sovereign+ increases the amount of usable fuel in those tanks to 1,700 gal. (11,394 lb.), with each tank carrying 850 gal. (5,697 lb.) of fuel.

As is noted in the table above, another distinction between the versions of the model 680 type is the wingspan, with the Sovereign+’s wingspan being more than 9-ft. greater than that of Sovereign. That larger wingspan also results in an increase in the wing area, while the fact that the wing loading is reduced has both positives (“runway and climb performance” that is improved) and negatives (increased drag during cruise and a “rougher ride” in turbulent conditions). Other aspects of the Sovereign+’s wings include Fowler flaps that “extend nearly 70% of the span, further increasing [the] effective wing area for takeoff and landing,” and winglets that improved both climb performance and range. Another wing feature is that each has “five multifunction spoiler panels,” with the outer panels serving as either spoilers or lift-dump spoilers, depending on if the airplane is in flight or on the ground, respectively. In contrast to the function of the outer panels, the three center panels act as “spoilerons.” Changes to the wing also resulted each wing having a fuel bay added which increases the usable fuel capacity by 171 gal., with all of the Sovereign+’s fuel carried in wet-wing tanks.

Program Status

Following the production of 450 Sovereign and Sovereign+ airframes, the final model 680 airframe was produced by Textron in 2021.

References

  • AWIN Article Archives
  • Textron Commercial Materials
  • FAA TCDS (Citation Sovereign/Sovereign+, PW306C/D)
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Business Aviation
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